Geza Vermes comments on the role of Judas Jesus’ arrest. Vermes is an insightful historian with a fascinating personal history. He does not believe that Jesus really was the Messiah, etc. but treats the NT with respect as an historical source (one that must be read carefully, like any other ancient text, of course, but without assuming that it must be in error as many today are wont to do).
Some of the theological arguments are, to put it mildly, purely speculative, such as: “If God decided to deliver Christ to the chief priests, Judas cannot be blamed for it” or “If Jesus possessed prescience, he must have known and willed the future conduct of Judas, betrayal included”. Such reasoning cuts no ice with the historically minded.